Oncology (onco-+ Gr. Logos- teaching, science) - area of medicine and biology that studies the causes, mechanisms and clinical manifestations of tumors. Oncology is studying methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of tumors.
Tumor in oncology are called excess pathological tissue growths composed of qualitatively altered, lost the differentiation of cells. Taken from the medical term denoting the process of tumor, most commonly used are: tumor - tumores, neoplasms - neoplasma, blastoma - blastomata, - the latter best reflects the essence of the process. Blastoma derives from the Greek verb blastoneyn - to grow. The nature and growth of the tumor can be divided into benign and malignant.
Benign tumors - tumor benignum, grow slowly and may exist for years without increases. They are surrounded by its own shell. With the growth, increasing the tumor pushes the surrounding tissue, without destroying them. Histological structure of the tumor is slightly different from the tissue in which it evolved. Therefore, benign tumors are named after their own tissue, from which they evolved, adding the suffix "ohm" from the Greek term "onkoma" (tumor). For example, a tumor of adipose tissue - lipoma of the connection - fibroma of the muscle - fibroids from the bone - osteoma. Removal of benign tumor from its shell leads to a complete cure the patient.
Malignant tumors - tumor malignum, grow much faster. Shells do not have. Tumor cells and their bands penetrate into the surrounding tissue (infiltrative growth), damaging them. Germinate lymphatic or blood vessels, they are blood or lymph can be transported to the lymph nodes or distant organs and form there a secondary focus of tumor - metastasis. The histological picture of malignant tumors is significantly different from the tissue from which it evolved. The cells of atypical, polymorphic, with many mitoses. A characteristic feature of tumor anaplasia is - a return to a more primitive type. Morphologically, it appears the loss of differentiation, functional - the loss of specific functions.
There are malignant tumors of epithelial nature - crabs, and arising from the mesenchymal derivatives - sarcoma. Up to 90% of all malignant tumors account for crayfish. Therefore, all malignant tumors are called cancer, and measures to combat malignant tumors - anti-cancer activities.
The newest method in oncology - proton therapy of cancer. The effectiveness of proton therapy in the treatment of tumors nemetastaziruyuschih reaches almost 100%.
Until recently, Cancer diagnosis sounded like a death sentence. Today it is not so modern oncology can cure many tumors in 100% of cases. In cancer early diagnosis is very important - the faster the tumor is detected and treated - the better the results. Modern diagnostic methods in oncology (ultrasound, X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging, laparoscopy, biopsy, modern laboratory techniques) can detect cancers at an early stage and carry out their effective prevention and treatment.