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Neurology, Ophthalmology, Cardiology, Oncology, Obesity, Endocrinology, Vascular surgery - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, description of the disease.

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Wednesday, 26.04.2017, 11:03
Main » Endocrinology » Diabetes mellitus - etiology and treatment 
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Diabetes mellitus - etiology and treatment


Diabetes mellitus - etiology and treatment

Diabetes - a disease of the endocrine system, accompanied by a chronic increase in blood glucose levels and the resulting relative or absolute deficiency of insulin.


Diabetes usually develops gradually. Long before clinical manifestations of the disease occurs deficiency of insulin or a decreased sensitivity of tissues to its action. The first manifestations of the disease is:
  • complaints of dry mouth
  • constant thirst (polydipsia)
  • increased appetite (polyphagia)
  • disappearance of satiety
  • increased frequency of urination
  • increase in urine output.


Urge to urinate frequently occur at night. Patients may lose weight despite an increase in the number of eaten food. Appear common manifestations of the disease: weakness, fatigue during normal physical activity, drowsiness, decreased sex drive and potency. Patients often suffer from respiratory infections, there are inflammatory pustular skin disease. There is itching of the skin throughout the body. Women often itching in the genital area.

In the further course of diabetes affects almost all organs and systems:

The skin becomes dry, free of cracks, abrasions. Palmar surface of the hands and plantar surface of the foot become yellow in color. Appear pigmented spots on the legs. Subcutaneous adipose tissue can be thinned in places of insulin or other drugs on the contrary there are seals and areas of atrophy of adipose tissue.

Part of the respiratory dryness of mucous membranes promotes the development of upper respiratory tract infections and bronchitis.

There are lesions of the musculoskeletal system:

strain in the joints of hands and feet (cubic foot)

Dupuytren's contracture (hardening of the tendons of the flexor of fingers, accompanied by the pulling of 3.4 fingers to the palm of the hand and the impossibility of their full extension).

Over time, the bone undergoes rarefaction, there is osteoporosis.

The lesions of the gastrointestinal tract varied. There are inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity:

  • gums (gingivitis)
  • alveolysis
  • stomatitis.


Inhibited the ability of the digestive stomach and small intestine. Reduced tone of the colon resulting in constipation, with lesions of the nervous system of the intestine, alternating with persistent diarrhea.

There are disorders of the liver (fatty steatosis). Disturbed bile outflow, contributing to the formation of stones in the biliary tract and gallbladder.

The defeat of the blood vessels (angiopathy) is always accompanied by diabetes. Due to the toxic effect of glucose on blood vessels, activation of lipid peroxidation and formation of toxic peroxides, breach of the formation of various biologically active substances, vascular wall thickened and loses elasticity. The vessels become brittle, lose their ability to alter its clearance. All this leads to disruption of blood supply to organs and tissues.

There is a loss of vascular glomeruli of kidneys, which ultimately leads to disruption of the kidneys, the appearance of protein in urine, kidney tissue sclerosis. Renal disease is often the cause of death in patients with diabetes at a young age.
Diabetes leads to the defeat of all the departments of:
  • there are inflammatory diseases of the eyelids (blepharitis), styes frequently, conjunctivitis
  • affected cornea, iris
  • in the lens appear flaky opacities, diabetic cataract appears true, which occurs in half of all patients with diabetes mellitus
  • violated the transparency of the vitreous
  • there are a variety of degenerative lesions of the retina.


Often, patients with diabetes mellitus found the so-called "diabetic foot". If there is a disturbance of blood supply and nervous regulation of the feet. This is followed by:

  • violation of the sensitivity of the feet
  • pain in the feet and legs
  • swelling of the feet
  • occurrence of deep ulcers
  • a tendency to suppuration.
  • Often these defects lead to amputation of fingers or feet.
  • Cardio-vascular system arise myocardiopathy and coronary heart disease. There are pains in the heart, abnormal heart rhythm.


Damage to the nervous system leads to:

  • disturbance sensitivity
  • trophic disturbances with the appearance of ulcers
  • bedsores, various violations of the autonomic nervous system
  • distsirkulyatornoy encephalopathy.
  • Disturbed function of sexual glands. The men gradually develop impotence. In women, the menstrual cycle is broken.

Treatment of diabetes.


Treatment of diabetes include:
  • diet prescriptions, reducing the amount of glucose in the blood
  • physiotherapy and exercise stress
  • the use of drugs for the prevention of diabetes complications.

It is very important to compensate the patient has diabetes diet. In the diet of such patients should be full of protein, fat and carbohydrates and vitamins. Calorie intake to meet the needs of the body. Should be limited to use carbohydrates, fats, and the use of vegetable oils, cheese, soybeans, oats should be increased.


Meals must be consistent with the time of admission blood glucose-lowering medications.

Exercise stress must be assigned to all patients with diabetes mellitus. When the muscles the body gets its energy from fat and carbohydrates, which lowers the body's need for insulin. The degree of stress depends on the patient's age, the disease, the cardiovascular system, and must be recommended by a specialist.

For drugs that reduce the amount of glucose in the blood, are insulin and its analogues, antidiabetic drugs tablets and some medicinal plants. In the appointment of insulin and its analogs with diabetes need to first type, and about a third of diabetic patients of the second type in which the appointment of tableted preparations ineffective, pregnant women with diabetes, regardless of its type, the patients who develop severe complications of diabetes.

Insulin products vary in duration:
  • Short-acting insulin - administered subcutaneously, intramuscularly or intravenously, operates from 6 to 8 hours
  • intermediate-acting insulin - administered subcutaneously or intramuscularly, operates from 14 to 18 hours
  • long-acting insulin - operates up to 30 hours.


It was found that for the normal functioning of the human body needs 20 to 40 units of insulin daily. Therefore, when prescribing insulin are guided by these figures. Typically, a combined scheme of prescribing insulin. Before three main meals are appointed by the injection of drugs short-acting insulin. Insulin injected long-acting at bedtime. By measuring the blood glucose level, insulin dosage adjustment is made drugs. Fluctuations in blood glucose levels should not exceed the range of 4.0 to 9.0 mmol / liter.



In recent years, developed methods of administration of insulin in the nasal mucosa, tablet form of the drug.

In the treatment of the majority of patients with diabetes of the second type are used hypoglycemic tablets drugs. These are preparations of different groups. At present, most commonly used combination hypoglycemic therapy. During the day appointed by the glucose-lowering drugs tablets in the evening injection of insulin produced.

For herbs (phytotherapy), appointed in diabetes include:
  • blueberries
  • cowberry
  • leaves of the walnut
  • oat
  • green beans
  • strawberry
  • chicory.


All fees are used herbs before eating. The patient should be well informed about their illness, trained in methods of measuring blood glucose levels should be able to maintain a state of compensation.

With early diagnosis, timely treatment assigned, adequate control of blood glucose, it is possible to achieve a full life in patients with diabetes mellitus.



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