Mitral valve is located between the left atrium and left ventricle. Normally, it opens in diastole, the arterial blood flowing from the left atrium into the left ventricle in systole and closed under the action of blood pressure with a reduction of the left ventricle, preventing reverse movement of blood from the left ventricle into the left atrium.
With its inherent vice may be stenosis (narrowing) of the hole between the left atrium and left ventricle that prevents the free flow of blood, or failure, when the valve does not close completely atrioventricular orifice and the blood from the ventricle falls into the atrium. This defect is rare. It is almost always associated with other congenital heart defects. Manifestations depend on the defect, with any other defect, he goes.
In mitral valve stenosis narrowing of the entrance into the left ventricle leads to an increase in left atrial pressure, since that would push the blood into the left ventricle through the narrowed opening muscle of the left atrium has to exert more effort. In the pulmonary circulation increases blood pressure. Over time, changes occur in the lungs. Patients complain of shortness of breath during physical exertion, fatigue, weakness, palpitations often. In the long wrinkle in the background appears pale skin so-called "mitral flush" - a bluish-pink color lips and cheeks, and bluish color of fingernails, nose, ears.
Mitral valve insufficiency - Diagnosis
Auscultation auscultated diastolic murmur, characteristic changes in heart sounds, "the rhythm of quail." On the electrocardiogram there are signs of increased left atrium. Radiographs detect changes in the lungs. Echocardiographically detected mitral valve changes, reducing the size of the mitral orifice.
Mitral valve insufficiency - Treatment
Made a correction not only of mitral valve stenosis, but also its attendant evils. In mitral valve stenosis produces a cut of his webbed wings or prosthetic valve. In mitral valve insufficiency occurs backflow of blood into the left atrium, there is first hypertrophy of the left atrium and then in a short time expansion of the atrium. There is increasing pressure in the vessels of the lungs. First developed left ventricular failure, and then joins in and right ventricular failure. In children, mitral insufficiency occurs usually difficult.
The child lags behind in physical development. With increasing congestion occurs dyspnea at rest, and then cardiac asthma. Swollen veins in the neck, nail plate painted in blue color, there are swelling in the legs. When listening to detect systolic murmur at the apex of the heart, the electrocardiogram increased left ventricular enlargement on chest radiographs of the heart. Echocardiographically determined changes in mitral valve regurgitation of the left ventricle into the left atrium, increasing the size of the left atrium and left ventricle. The operation is preferable to perform at an older age. Produce plastic or mitral valve replacement.