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Saturday, 18.11.2017, 02:08
Main » Mammology » Classification of breast cancer 
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Classification of breast cancer


Classification of breast cancer

Classification helps to organize the specific symptoms that are characteristic for a particular stage of the disease. Any disease in medicine are usually classified according to stages of development. This allows you to better understand the prognosis of the disease (ie, the outcome), choose the best treatment (because the treatment depends on the stage of disease) and in addition, allows us to describe the classification stage of the disease so as to make it clear to all doctors.


Stage 0

This stage describes the non-invasive cancer. The term "non-invasive" means that the tumor does not extend beyond its appearance. These include tumors of the mammary glands, such as lobular carcinoma in situ or ductal carcinoma elsewhere in situ.

Stage 1

This stage describes invasive breast cancer. At the same cancer cells affect neighboring tissues. In this case:
Tumor 2 cm
Lymph nodes are not affected.


Stage 2

This stage of invasive breast cancer, so that:
The tumor from 2 to 5 cm or
Amazed at the lymph nodes in the armpit on the same side as the tumor. At the same lymph nodes were not fused with each other and to the underlying tissues. This is a sign that the cancer has not moved to the third stage. In this case breast cancer can be any size.


Stage 3

This stage is divided into substages A and B.

Stage 3 A

It is invasive cancer that is characterized by the following features:
Breast cancer T5 cm or more
A significant increase in the lymph nodes. At the same lymph nodes are soldered to each other or with the underlying tissues.


Stage 3 B

At this stage of the tumor may be any size, but it grows into the skin of the breast, chest wall, or in internal mammary lymph nodes. By stage III B breast cancer refers is the so-called inflammatory carcinoma, which occurs in 5 - 10% of cases, however, is a very serious form of breast cancer. The most characteristic feature of this form of breast cancer is redness of the breast. It is warm to the touch. Sometimes the skin can take the form of orange peel or a pimple, and others noted the increase and consolidation of a part or all of the breast. Often this form of cancer can be confused with common inflammation of the breast - mastitis.

Stage 4

Characteristic features of this stage of breast cancer are:
The tumor spreads beyond the chest, in the armpit and the internal mammary lymph nodes
In addition, the tumor can spread to the supraclavicular lymph nodes (which are above the collarbone), as well as the lungs, liver, bones or brain.


In addition to this classification of breast cancer is divided into early and late stages.

By the early forms of breast cancer include:
Stage 0
Stage I
Phase II


By the later forms of breast cancer include:
Phase II, if the tumor has moved to many lymph nodes,
Stage III (III A and III B).


By the late-stage breast cancer is stage IV.

In addition, breast cancer, as well, and other malignant tumors of other organs and tissues, have the following characteristics:
The size of the tumor,
The involvement of regional lymph nodes,
The presence or absence of metastases.


At these parameters based international classification of malignant tumors TNM.

The parameter T may have the following meanings:
Tx - the tumor can not be found and to know its size.
T0 - no primary tumor.
Tis - means the cancer in situ («carcinoma in situ") - that is, the tumor has not spread anywhere beyond.
T1 - T4 - These parameters describe the size of the tumor and the degree of sprouting in neighboring organs and tissues.


The parameter N can have the following meanings:
NX - Regional lymph nodes can not be measured or detected.
N0 - no regional lymph nodes affected by tumor.
N1 - N3 - parameter characterizes the size of the lymph nodes, their location and quantity.


The parameter M may have the following meanings:
Mx - metastases can not be detected.
M0 - no distant metastases.
M1 - there are distant metastases.



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