Approximately half of the population suffers from hemorrhoids at different ages within the most frequently age of the patient with hemorrhoids - 20 - 50 years. Currently, researchers recognize that the main cause of hemorrhoids is the weakness of the venous wall - that is varicose veins.
It is thought that hemorrhoids - the so-called cavernous bodies, which are nothing more than a vein. The weakness of the venous wall - this is only a predisposing factor, so to speak, a risk factor, because with the right lifestyle and hemorrhoids may occur. But conditions such as sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, frequent constipation, pregnancy and alcohol abuse, which leads eventually to cirrhosis of the liver, and give impetus to the development of hemorrhoids.
The second predisposing cause of hemorrhoids is the so-called mechanical factor. Under the influence of unfavorable factors in the circular muscle of the submucosal layer of the rectum, which is responsible for holding the hemorrhoid in the anal canal, becomes weak, it dystrophic changes occur. As a result of hemorrhoids fall out.
Here are the factors that contribute to hemorrhoids:
Frequent constipation, in which the patient has tense,
Prolonged diarrhea (diarrhea),
Pregnancy and childbirth (because here, too, a woman has to straining)
Thus, the basic and main cause of hemorrhoids - the strain of varicose veins hemorrhoids.
Note also that the weakness of the venous wall depends on the age, so that often occurs in older piles.
Pregnancy is also a cause of hemorrhoids. This is due mainly to the fact that pregnant women increased intra-abdominal pressure, as the fetus presses on the veins. Note that in pregnant women are often the phenomenon of hemorrhoids go away on its own without treatment after birth.
Frequent and prolonged constipation, hemorrhoids are the cause in the sense that such patients are forced straining, resulting in increased intra-abdominal pressure, which contributes to loss of hemorrhoids. Therefore, people prone to constipation, it is recommended to eat more foods rich in fiber and drink more water to prevent the occurrence of hemorrhoids, well - to take a laxative.
Paradoxically, the hemorrhoid - a disease of the economically and technologically developed countries, due to the peculiarities of diet and physical activity in humans. Modern toilets, when a man sitting on the toilet, also contribute to the development of hemorrhoids, as in this position is the pelvic floor muscle relaxation and tension rectal muscles. For millennia, people defecated squatting. Oddly enough, but this is considered the most physiologic position.
The weakness of the venous wall and the pelvic muscles - is the main reason contributing to the development of hemorrhoids. Therefore, the simple removal of hemorrhoids still does not mean that the hemorrhoid will not appear in the future, that is, does not preclude recurrence.
Another reason for hemorrhoids - obesity. In fact, whenever people with obesity rises or goes, he picks up or carries weight - all that extra weight, which he has.
One more "delicate" the cause of hemorrhoids is anal sex. And, what - no matter used lubricants, anal canal is not intended to physiological sex. And, if you already have hemorrhoids, then anal sex can contribute to complications, namely, inflammation and bleeding.
Symptoms of hemorrhoids
The most common manifestations of hemorrhoids begin gradually. In rare cases, when such complications of hemorrhoids, as inflammation, bleeding, thrombosis, or impairment of the host manifested acute hemorrhoids. Most often, when there are no complications of hemorrhoids, the disease manifests a feeling of discomfort, a sensation in the anus of a foreign body, as well as anal itching.
I must say, that in itself piles are not always concerned about the patient, but only during exacerbation, such as constipation, diarrhea, pregnancy, alcoholic excesses, etc. When the pain and discomfort become more noticeable is the patient begins to realize that no longer attaches much importance to these symptoms.
Among the main symptoms of hemorrhoids include:
Foreign body sensation in the anus,
Hemorrhoidal prolapse with a bowel movement or excessive straining,
Pain in the anus during defecation,
Bleeding during bowel movements, which usually remain in the stool or on toilet paper,
However, not all bleeding from the anus during bowel movements is the initial manifestation of the disease. Aggravation of hemorrhoids is often facilitated by such states as a violation of the diet, excessive alcohol consumption or provoking food. This can result not only inflammation, but even the denial of hemorrhoids. In addition to the symptoms of hemorrhoids may show the beginning and pain during bowel movements.
Thus, the hemorrhoids - is a chronic disease, and it occurs with periods of exacerbation and remission.
During the acute hemorrhoids patients from the category of healthy people, goes into the category of patients. Further, the same acute disease may occur with some frequency or intensity, even with small eating disorders. In the interval between exacerbations of hemorrhoids patient feels healthy.
As the exacerbation of the disease progression of hemorrhoids are becoming more frequent and more severe manifestations of it. With frequent, though not very pronounced, bleeding, marked anemia (reduced hemoglobin). There is a slight loss of nodes, even with a small straining.
It was re-bleeding from the anus and hemorrhoids prolapse and are considered the major signs of chronic haemorrhoids. In the future, may join anal itching, discomfort in the anus, as well as mucus.
Symptoms of chronic hemorrhoids
The main symptoms of chronic recurrent bleeding hemorrhoids are associated generally with the stool, and loss of hemorrhoids from the anus during and after stool. The most characteristic feature of chronic recurrent hemorrhoids is bleeding from the anus. Usually such bleeding observed during the act of defecation. Bleeding hemorrhoids can vary in duration, nature and color. Blood can be allocated as drops after defecation, and stay on the stool in the form of strips. Very rarely, bleeding hemorrhoids is constant, and even more rarely observed stagnation of blood in the rectum, and then possibly the presence of clots and dark red blood.
Loss of hemorrhoids
Loss of hemorrhoids - is the second most common symptom of hemorrhoids. Severity of symptoms depends directly on the duration of the hemorrhoid. In the initial stages of hemorrhoids are independently reduce a node (unless they are inflamed). In the later stages of the nodes have to reduce a patient himself.
Usually the pain is not typical for hemorrhoids, but they may be in chronic hemorrhoids and acute. And if the chronic course of the disease is usually dull the pain, the acute - they are quite pronounced and are associated mainly with the act of defecation. Sharp intense pain is characterized as to infringe dropped hemorrhoids and thrombosis. It is worth paying attention to the fact that pain, though, are not the main symptom of hemorrhoids, so you should look for the cause (eg anal fissure).
Discomfort and anal itching
Anal itching and discomfort, usually characteristic of the later stages of the disease. Anal itching of hemorrhoids is most often associated with the incidence of skin mucus, and as a result of her growing maceration. Another cause of anal itching can be contact dermatitis, which is associated with the use of anal suppositories or ointments.
Swelling of the perianal
Perianal edema - swelling of the soft tissues of the anus is typical of acute hemorrhoids. In some cases, perianal swelling accompanied by a feeling of heaviness in the perineum and anus, and the desire to empty the bowel.
One of the characteristic symptoms of hemorrhoids are abnormal discharge from the rectum, which may be in the form of mucus. This is due to the fact that hemorrhoids are often associated with other inflammatory diseases of the rectum.
Acute thrombosis of hemorrhoids
Thrombosis - the formation of a blood vessel in the lumen of a blood clot. Such thrombosis can be observed in the hemorrhoidal veins. The reason it is the inflammation of the nodes, their frustration and stagnation of blood in the veins. Acute thrombosis of hemorrhoids can be one of the manifestations of acute exacerbations of chronic hemorrhoids Most internal hemorrhoids thrombosis contributes to spasm of the anal sphincter (the muscle responsible for the closing of the anus). This spasm is the result of a painful irritation of tissue in the anal canal. Spasm leads to compression of the veins, which leads to disruption of blood flow in them. Thrombosis hemorrhoids begins acutely, usually after straining. Thrombosis is accompanied by severe pain, in addition, possible bleeding from the anus. On examination of these nodes, they are a dark cherry color.
There are three degrees of hemorrhoids, which depends on its clinical manifestations.
1st degree hemorrhoids: the anus or in the anal canal has been a slight painful education tugoelastichnoy consistency. The skin of these nodes are usually flushed. These nodes are in contact is usually painful. In the area of the anus observed moderate pain, discomfort and itching, which intensified after a bowel movement. The intensity of these symptoms increased after administration of acute and pickled food, alcohol and prolonged sitting.
2nd degree hemorrhoids: Hemorrhoids at this stage showed a significant increase in the intensity of pain, hemorrhoids become more dense, and redness in the anal area is increasing. At this stage, digital rectal examination is impossible due to the pronounced pain syndrome. In addition, a spasm of the anal sphincter.
Third degree hemorrhoids: If this degree of inflammation becomes a node on the surrounding tissue. The skin around the anus, reddened, infiltrated (sealed). Palpation in this area is noted a sharp pain, and digital rectal examination is not possible. Hemorrhoids disadvantaged, dense, with areas of necrosis, blue-purple color, does not reduce a the anal canal. If at this stage not to carry out treatment, the nodes may have fallen exhibited necrosis (mortify) that can cause acute paraproctitis (purulent inflammation of tissue around the rectum) or bleeding.