Tendons are composed of dense fibrous connective tissue. Healthy tendon ruptures are rare, when the load on it becomes prohibitive and exceeds the mechanical resistance of tissues. If the tendon for a long time experienced significant congestion, it may develop degenerative and dystrophic process. Contribute to the degeneration of the tendon tissue circulatory disorders, metabolic diseases, chronic inflammation and hypothermia.
Tendon rupture may be complete or incomplete and occur in the course of the tendon or at the site of its attachment to the bone. At the same bone fragment separation does not occur. If the tendon was not degenerative change, breaking away from its place of attachment is extremely rare. Such an injury may be subject to:
supraspinatus tendon in place of its attachment to a large tubercle humerus
biceps tendon at the site of its attachment to the scapula acromion appendage
biceps tendon attached to the tuberosity of the radius and the appendage korakoidalnomu Blade (very rare).
triceps brachii tendon can tear himself away from the olecranon. gap is slightly more common aponeurosis (aponeurosis) of extensor toe, with dislocation of interphalangeal joint.
In the lower extremities are most common:
disinsertion of the quadriceps muscles of the shoulder, attach to the top of the patella detachment of the Achilles tendon from calcaneal tuberosity.
Breaks the remaining tendon is almost never occur. When you break the patient's concerns tendon pain at the separation, which appears suddenly, with a heavy load, roll, jump. Motion in the affected muscle are violated. Edema, a swelling. When complete separation tendon end it is associated with muscle, slipping along the muscle, the muscle shortens and rises in the form of tubercles. Tendon on their length, in a place remote from the point of attachment of the upper extremities are rare, and are more often incomplete. Significantly more likely to occur in athletes tendon major muscles of the lower limb girdle.
There are gaps:
biceps femoris tendon
Achilles tendon rupture.
All these tears are accompanied by dysfunction of the muscles, regardless of whether complete or incomplete rupture. In the place of rupture causes pain, swelling, bleeding.
Treatment of ruptures of tendons. Conservative treatment of tendon rupture is inefficient, especially for athletes. Even a partial tendon rupture may significantly affect the function of limbs, if not treated promptly. All that matters is the time of treatment.
Surgical treatment is carried out as early as possible. Sense of treatment is reduced to that tendon stitched, and with its isolation from the point of attachment, sew the tendon to the bone, or use a temporary fixation of needle Kirchner. This allows the healing process to go quickly and efficiently.