In the late 1950s on the basis of clinical and laboratory studies have established the role of stem cells in hematopoiesis, and proved that bone marrow containing these cells can restore normal hematopoiesis in more than 40 of his malignant disease.
More than 75% of the transplants make for malignant diseases. Due to the fact that 60-70% of patients can not find a suitable donor, and in order to avoid a reaction of "graft-versus-host disease" in patients with tumors sensitive to intensive chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow conduct.
Autologous transplantation involves transplanting bone marrow taken from individual patients during remission or in the absence of his disease for subsequent transplantation of the same patient after chemotherapy and radiation, carried out in order to treat cancer.
Of great importance are timing of transplantation: early - before the development of tumor resistance to treatment - can expect a better result. Donor bone marrow may be a healthy person with normal blood test from childhood until the age of 65. In addition to the mandatory full match for certain antigens, the accuracy of selection can be amplified DNA typing.
Diseases of the heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, increases the risk of complications, so the status of these bodies should be carefully evaluated. At the time of transplantation in a patient should not be infectious diseases. Immediately before transplantation, bone marrow biopsy performed to confirm the remission of the disease.
In addition to the general blood tests and routine biochemical tests carried out virological studies for cytomegalovirus, hepatitis A, B, C, herpes simplex virus and Epstein-Bar. In patients with lymphomas and solid tumors, perform a CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Mandatory dental health. Performed radiologist recommendation. In the case under previous radiotherapy assessed its tolerability.
In the first 3 weeks after bone marrow transplantation the main tasks of the patients are the prevention and treatment of infectious complications, prevention of toxic effects of chemotherapy and adequate nutrition.
Despite the fact that patients who have undergone bone marrow transplantation, have a long and powerful psycho-emotional stress, the majority of recipients with increased life span is subjective feel satisfactory, which is indicative of a high level of rehabilitation of these patients.