Different types of stress cause a reflex stimulation of the hypothalamus by or through the cerebral cortex that leads to an increase in the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. Sympatho-adrenal system, in turn, plays an important role in the emergence of psycho-somatic disorders in conditions of emotional stress.
Thus, trauma can lead to changes that cause autonomic dysfunction, particularly dysfunction of internal organs. Sometimes these disorders can be central focus and involve the patient, while the accompanying common disorders of the nervous activity (irritability, anxiety, depressed mood, insomnia, etc.) fades into the background.
In this case there may be disturbances of the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary and other systems. Autonomic disorders may be manifested in the form of vegetative-vascular dystonia and crises.
In dystonia, autonomic disturbances are either in the form of increased heart rate, blood pressure increase of dry mouth, sensitivity to cold extremities, slow pulse, or vice versa, low blood pressure, increased salivation, increase intestinal peristalsis, redness of the skin. Sometimes these effects can be combined.
Against the background of dystonia may occur vegetative crises, usually related to the emotional state:
The first consisted of increased heart rate, pain and discomfort in the heart, pale skin, numbness of cold extremities, often shivering. Second - in the sense of fading or malfunction of the heart, feeling short of breath, choking, unpleasant sensations in the epigastric region, enhancing peristalsis. It is noted flushing of the skin, hot flashes, sweating and polyuria. Crises is usually accompanied by anxiety or fear. Duration of crises from several minutes to several hours.