The largest vessel of the human aorta leaves the left ventricle of the heart. It is arterial blood from the heart under high pressure, secured a strong reduction in the muscle of the left ventricle. Then, in systems of large and small arteries and arterioles oxygen-rich blood reaches every cell in the body. In the systole phase the heart is pumping blood into the aorta and to relax during ventricular diastole, the phase when the pressure drops in the left ventricle, blood is returned into the cavity of the ventricle, at the entrance to the aorta is the aortic valve. It consists of three semilunar valves.
At various lesions of aortic valve leaf can shrink, thicken, and the opening of the left ventricle into the aorta does not close completely. There is a backflow of blood from the ventricle into the aorta - there is aortic valve regurgitation. The additional volume of blood entering the left ventricle, ventricular muscle forces to operate with greater force. The muscle hypertrophy, thickened. A powerful left ventricle for a long time can compensate for this condition. However, over time the muscle is stretched, the force decreases and there is a reduction in heart failure.
Patients did not complain for a long time. Then there are palpitations, shortness of breath. Pain in the heart are usually compressed in nature. Due to the deterioration of the blood supply to the brain in a patient can be dizziness, fainting. Since the advent of complaints, patients with aortic insufficiency without surgical treatment of live 3-5 years. The patient is usually pale skin. When decompensation skin gets ashy hue. On the neck may be visible pulsation of the carotid arteries. It's called "carotid shudder" There may be a symptom of de Musset - rhythmic shaking his head in sync with the pulse.
Aortic insufficiency - Diagnosis
If you are listening to diastolic murmur over the aorta, which occurs when the reverse current of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle through the hole in the valve. The upper limit of blood pressure increases, and the lower limit falls to zero. In this case the lower extremities systolic blood pressure (upper bound) can be much higher than the lower. On the radiograph is determined by the increase of the left ventricle, the expansion of the aorta. On the electrocardiogram there are signs of increased left ventricle. When echocardiography are expanding aortic seal aortic valve regurgitation from the aorta into the left ventricle, determine the degree of damage to the valve.
Aortic insufficiency - Treatment
Medical treatment of aortic valve insufficiency is reduced to treating the underlying disease, if it is detected in time. In the later stages of this treatment of heart failure.
Surgical treatment of aortic insufficiency. If the lesion of aortic valve structurally unstable, can be plastic aortic valve. It uses various techniques. However, when such operations is high risk of recurrence of aortic insufficiency and a need for reoperation. Therefore, most patients with this heart defect did recommend prosthetic aortic valve.
Mortality in the surgical treatment of 3 to 10%. Good results of surgical treatment are stored up to 10 years in 75% of operated patients.