The aorta - is the largest artery in the body. Through her, the blood goes from heart to all organs and tissues. Coming from the heart, the aorta passes through the chest, where it is known as thoracic. In the abdominal aorta is called the abdomen. Through this section of the aorta receives blood to the lower body. In the lower abdomen aorta divides into two branches - the iliac arteries, which are involved in blood supply of the lower extremities.
Special saccular enlargement of the abdominal aorta wall, which is due to thinning of its walls, called an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta. The fact that quite a powerful blood pressure on a weakened aortic wall, there is her balloons shaped expansion of its site specific. The normal diameter of the aorta is 2 cm, however, at its aortic aneurysm diameter can be stretched to dangerous proportions. The danger of any aneurysm of the aorta is that it can happen bundle or even rupture, causing massive internal bleeding and death.
In addition, the aneurysm may promote the formation of blood clots in the blood. These clots rushing blood flow to organs and can cause blockage of blood vessels, resulting in significant pain and disruption to the flow in the extremities and necrosis.
However, in the early diagnosis of aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, it can be treated and even cured with modern effective and safe treatments.
What are the symptoms of abdominal aortic aneurysm?
With the development of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta can be observed the following symptoms:
Throbbing sensation in his stomach, like a heartbeat
Strong sudden pain in the abdomen or lower back. This may be a sign of aortic dissection In rare cases there may be a pain in the feet, blanching caused by blockage of lower extremities thrombi
When the bundle of the aneurysm patient may feel sudden weakness, dizziness, or pain and unconsciousness. This is a life-threatening condition in which case the patient needs urgent medical care.
Causes of abdominal aortic aneurysm
Doctors and researchers can not fully answer this question. The leading cause of aortic aneurysms is the inflammation that contributes to the destruction of the aortic wall. Some researchers attribute this to an inflammation of the aortic wall with the process of atherosclerosis or risk factors that lead to atherosclerosis, such as high blood pressure. When atherosclerosis in the arteries and the aorta are deposited so-called atherosclerotic plaques. Over time, this process leads to a narrowing of the lumen of the arteries, loss of elasticity and weaknesses. There are other risk factors for aortic aneurysm, except of atherosclerosis:
Men older than 60 years
The presence of a direct relative (mother, brother) who are suffering from aortic aneurysm
High blood pressure
The risk of aortic aneurysm increases with age. Men suffering aortic aneurysm than women.
The necessary examination for suspected abdominal aortic aneurysm
Most often aortic aneurysm is found during any study procedures the patient, such as ultrasound. If the doctor suspects you have the presence of an aortic aneurysm, it may recommend:
Ultrasonography of the abdomen
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
How is abdominal aortic aneurysm?
Your doctor may recommend a so-called watchful waiting, which means that every 6 months you will be a survey to identify any changes in the size of the aneurysm. To do so regularly or ultrasound, or computed tomography. This method is used to diagnose an aneurysm diameter of 5 - 5.5 cm If in addition, have you suffer from high blood pressure, the doctor may prescribe drugs that reduce it, thereby reducing blood pressure on the weakened aortic wall. If you smoke, you should quit smoking. By itself, the aneurysm is not going anywhere. It is therefore very important to always consult with your doctor as an aneurysm can eventually reach a dangerous size, which is fraught with complications.
If the aneurysm causes certain symptoms (pain, throbbing, etc.) or its diameter is greater than 5 - 5.5 cm, or over time there is an increase in its diameter, the surgeon may offer you an open surgical procedure. The meaning of this operation is that the surgeon removes a section of a modified attenuated aortic wall and replaces it with a special "pipe" - aortic prosthesis. The prosthesis is made of special durable synthetic material (manually) in diameter and the size of a healthy aorta. Aortic prosthesis sewn allows blood to flow freely. After surgery, the patient stays in hospital 4 - 7 days. A full course of rehabilitation may take about 2 - 3 months. The success of treatment of an aortic aneurysm in this way amounts to 90%.
A more modern method of treatment of aneurysms of the aorta (the aorta and not only) in the form of endovascular surgery, as stenting. The term "endovascular" means that the operation is carried out within the vessel using a special catheter that is inserted into the lumen of the vessel. This type of operation is minimally invasive. This means that for an operation the surgeon is required to make only a small incision in the inguinal folds, through which the catheter. During the operation, X-ray image is shot in real time, allowing the surgeon to control the process of the catheter in the vessel. Next, the surgeon enters the lumen of the aorta a special device - stent. This is a cylindrical wire frame, which strengthens the aortic wall. Rehabilitation after surgery of this kind only 2 - 3 days. However, after an operation requires a fairly frequent radiological monitoring of the operation and set the stent. In addition, it may happen that this method does not suit you, for example, if you have renal failure. It should be noted that in some cases more acceptable open surgery.