Alzheimer's disease (presenile dementia, presenile dementia) - a genetic disease that develops in the second half of life, most often in women. Clinical manifestations of it are as numerous and progressive neurological disorders. They arise as a result of pathological changes in the cerebral cortex, predominantly in the temporal and parietal lobes. The so-called cortical atrophy in this disease leads to disruption of the exchange of acetylcholine, an important mediator responsible for the transmission of impulses in the nervous system.
Gradual onset, inconspicuous. Usually, neither the patients nor their relatives can not precisely define the period of illness onset. Most often, initially as a short-term memory disorders: the patient forgets to put the glasses, turned off a light, take a meal. The worsening of the defect leads to a decrease in memory, forgetting the names of loved ones, their appearance, names of objects and words. Along with memory disorders are beginning to make progress speech disorders: patients with difficulty finding the right words, hardly perceive the meaning of reading. The patient's behavior becomes stereotyped, stereotypic, indifferent. At the same time can be kept long enough skills that are developed over the years. Because of this, patients may be kept for some time at work, in spite of the considerable development of symptoms.
In the later stages of the disease - in a few years, joining a mood disorder. Thus, there is its instability, irritability, anger, emotional arousal episodes alternating with apathy and indifference. Perhaps the appearance of epileptic seizures, as well as delusions and hallucinations. Delusions and hallucinations are the so-called "small scale", ie reflect the real everyday situations - old quarrels with neighbors, the usual conflicts in the subway or a pharmacy, political events in the news on television or in newspapers that patients interpret in terms of intentional infliction of harm. In the later stages of the disease might upset drives - engorgement and hyper - which is often erroneously regarded as relatives of the patient are not symptoms of the disease, but as a manifestation of previously inherent in his character traits.
Alzheimer's disease belongs to a group of nervous and mental disease, and older Clinical manifestations of it are often combined or very similar to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease or Pick's disease. However, this disease has a specific treatment, which should begin as soon as possible. Early adequate therapy can prevent or significantly delay the development of symptoms and allow the patient for a long time to function normally, without nursing care and supervision. It is no secret that such patients, the development of dementia and severe memory disorders, are in full charge of others.
In recent years, in the treatment and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease undergoing big changes in terms of creating new drugs and the development of systems of rehabilitation. First is necessary to avoid prolonged hospitalization of these patients, but on the contrary - to attach them to a feasible operation. This contributes to a more long-term preservation of social skills and work, and slow the disease.
Second, the major groups of drugs in the treatment of psychiatric drugs are to the action of acetylcholine on the exchange - antipsychotics, tranquilizers, antidepressants, as well as drugs with an activating effect on memory and emotion.