The adrenal glands is the endocrine glands, located above the upper pole of each kidney. The adrenal glands consist of:
brain (inner layer)
cortex or the adrenal cortex.
Dimensions of the adrenal gland of an adult 4h2h0, 3 cm adrenal weight from 6 to 7 g.
The upper part of the adrenal cortex is the glomerular zone. It formed mineralocorticoids - aldosterone. Most of the adrenal cortex is two-stream zone. In-stream zone is a synthesis of glucocorticoids.
The inner layer of the adrenal cortex is called the mesh area and synthesizes sex gormony.Vo domestic adrenal medulla contains adrenaline and noradrenaline. Hormones produced by the adrenal glands are called corticosteroids. All they are synthesized from cholesterol. The rate of synthesis of hormones and their release into the blood is controlled by the pituitary hormone ACTH.
Glucocorticoids. The primary glucocorticoid in humans is cortisol, which is synthesized in the adrenal gland of the beam area. Less active glucocorticoids:
11 - dezoksikortizol
11 - degidrokortikosteron.
Transported in blood glucocorticoids by special carrier proteins. Excreted mainly in the liver. Glucocorticoids are involved in the regulation of metabolism. They increase protein breakdown, increase the concentration of glucose in the blood, reduce the formation of fats and alter the distribution of adipose tissue in the body, increasing the amount of free fat in the blood.
Glucocorticoids have anti-inflammatory effect, reducing all of the components of inflammatory reactions in the body. Affect the immune system. They are involved in the regulation of blood pressure, kidney function is activated. With an excess of glucocorticoids occurs atrophy of lymph nodes.
Mineralocorticoids. By mineralocorticoids include:
18 - oksikortikosteron.
The most active of them aldosterone. It regulates the reabsorption of water in the tubules of the kidneys, reduces the excretion of sodium and potassium increases the excretion from the body. Control the synthesis of aldosterone by the renin-angiotensin system, potassium levels in blood and pituitary ACTH.
In the mesh layer formed of adrenal sex hormones - androgens, estrogens, and a small amount of progesterone.
Catecholamines. In the adrenal medulla catecholamines are formed:
Catecholamines are neurotransmitters, which serve as transmitters of nerve impulses in the sympathetic nervous system. Synthesis of amino acids derived from tyrosine. Catecholamines are also involved in regulating the secretion of certain hormones in the body and affect metabolism.