Adenoma of prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia) - Causes, Treatment
Adenoma of the prostate, BPH, or benign prostatic hyperplasia is a disease accompanied by the formation in the prostate tissue small nodule, which gradually increases in size. Such nodules may be few. The gradual increase in size of nodules leads to compression of the urethra, which passes through the prostate gland, and difficulty urinating. Benign prostatic hyperplasia disease is not malignant. It does not extend to other organs.
BPH most frequent urological disease in men. After 50 years, every second man suffering from BPH and age of patients increases.
Causes of benign prostatic hyperplasia unclear. This is believed to involutional changes and symptoms of male menopause, although this view has not been proved. Not found an association of adenomas with the previous patient's sex life, smoking, alcohol use and related diseases. The development of BPH is very slow, not accompanied by pain or other sensations. The only manifestation of disease is a violation of urination. The degree of urination is not necessarily dependent on the size of adenomas. For the most part a violation of urination depends on the direction of growth nodule. Even a small bundle of growing close to the urethra can cause considerable difficulty urinating, with a big knot growing on the periphery of the gland can not show any symptoms.
During the prostatic adenoma is divided into three stages:
The first stage or the stage of the precursors. At this stage there are early signs of urination. Increased frequency of urination at night. The patient has to get up several times at night to urinate. Urine flow becomes sluggish and urinating may end drops. Next to urinate have tense. Sometimes the urge to urinate during the day can be so severe that the patient can not long postpone urination and forced to flee to the bathroom. In the first stage of the bladder can not empty completely, residual urine is not due to compensatory increase of the detrusor muscle - muscles, expelling urine from the bladder. Gradually, decompensation occurs and the disease passes into the second stage. Duration of this stage from one year to 15 years.In the second stage of the disease is becoming increasingly difficult to urinate. The stream of urine becomes more sluggish, falling steeply, urination may be interrupted droplets of urine. In order to help the patient have to push. Sometimes the urine can only be completed in several stages. Muscle tissue of the bladder becomes thinner, the bladder is stretched, it is accumulated in the residual urine. Any exposure to cold, stress, errors in diet, concomitant diseases may lead to a complete overlap of the urethra and acute urinary retention. At the same time urine collects in the bladder can not urinate. The patient experiences severe abdominal pain. In this case, urine is removed from the bladder through a catheter. Sometimes the number of the remote reaches several liters of urine. Acute urinary retention may occur at any stage of the disease. The further course of the disease leads to complications related to the stagnation of urine in the bladder. The next stage of the disease.
In the third stage of the disease the bladder is stretched, its volume is greatly increased. The number of residual urine reaches two liters. This leads to increased pressure in the ureters and kidneys, which along with the stagnation of urine leads to complications from kidney disease. There are general weakness, thirst, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. High blood pressure and bladder wall hyperinflate result in damage to the veins of the bladder, which manifests the appearance of blood in the urine. Due to the stagnation of urine in the bladder can easily develop an infection, cystitis and pyelonephritis occur. The same stagnation of urine contributes to the formation of stones in the bladder.
The diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia is set on the basis of the patient survey, carried out necessarily finger study of the prostate through the rectum, ultrasonography, uroflowmetry, exploring the rate of urine flow.
Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (Treatment of prostate adenoma). Treatment of BPH in the early stages of the disease, when a slight difficulty urinating and the urine is completely removed from the bladder, may be conservative. Modern drugs can slow the growth of adenomas, and sometimes even reduce its size. In men, old age, which is impossible to surgery because of concomitant diseases is carried out bladder catheterization. The most effective treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia is a rapid method. At a young age, if the disease is not running, can not remove the entire prostate gland, but only adenomas. Often these operations are performed using the endoscopic technique through the urethra (transurethral resection of the prostate). But in this case, if the prostate is not completely removed, the disease can recur. Complete removal of the prostate is performed by open surgery through the bladder. Prostate is completely removed. The results of operations are usually good. Prevention of benign prostatic hyperplasia does not exist yet, so every man who has attained forty years to once a year to visit a urologist.
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